Alunite – A trigonal mineral formed from sulfuric acid acting on potassium feldspar in volcanic regions.

Beryl – One of the thirty recognized minerals of Beryllium. Occurs in a hexagonal crystal. Gem quality crystals are emerald and aquamarine.

Bertrandite – An important source of Beryllium mined in the Topaz Mountain region in western Utah.

Beryllium – A silver gray metal. 1/3 lighter than aluminum, it is the lightest of all metals. Alloyed with copper for electrical connectors and tools. The world’s largest known beryllium resource is in Juab County. Bertrandite ore (beryllium silicate) is found in volcanic tuff northwest of Delta. Utah continues to be the leading producer of beryllium metal in the United States. Uses include: nuclear reactors, aerospace applications, smartphones, and as an alloy for electrical and electronic equipment.

Building Stone – A general, nongeneric term for any rock suitable for use in construction.

Clay – An extremely fine-grained natural earthy material composed primarily of hydrous aluminum silicates.

Coal – A black substance used for fuel, composed of mineralized vegetable matter.

Copper – A reddish metallic element that takes on a bright metallic luster and is malleable, ductile, and a good conductor of heat and electricity. The world’s largest open-pit copper mine is at Bingham Canyon just southwest of Salt Lake City. The copper occurs in copper sulfide grains scattered through volcanic and intrusive rock and in high-grade veins and replacement bodies in the limestones around the intrusive rock. Copper has been produced from about 50 mining districts in Utah, most in the western part of the state. Some copper is associated with uranium and vanadium in sandstones in
the Colorado Plateau. Uses include: building construction, electrical and electronic products, and industrial machinery.

Gold – A malleable ductile yellow metallic element. Much of Utah’s gold production has been as a byproduct of copper-lead-zinc ore, especially from Bingham Canyon. North of Bingham Canyon, the Barney’s Canyon mine is currently the state’s largest primary gold producer. Some of Utah’s gold has been recovered from weathered near-surface veins. One large placer gold deposit was found in Bingham Canyon in 1864 and other smaller placers were found along the Colorado River and its tributaries. Utah usually ranks second or third in production of gold in the United States. Uses include: jewelry, arts, electronics, dental, and coinage.

Gypsum – A hydrous calcium sulfate, colorless to white in crystals.

Iron – A heavy malleable ductile magnetic silver-white metallic element. High-grade iron ore is found in many small deposits in the Wasatch and Uinta Mountains, but large deposits are found only in southwestern Utah. For many years iron ore has been mined at the Iron Springs district in Iron County, where it occurs as magnetite and hematite replacements of limestone around a granitic intrusion. Uses include: pig-iron, steel making, and cement.

Salt – A crystalline compound that consists of sodium chloride.

Silver – A white metallic element that is very ductile and malleable. Many of the metalliferous or lode deposits in western Utah contain a mixture of silver, lead, and zinc, with lesser amounts of copper, gold, and other minor metals. These deposits are found where the fluids from igneous intrusions have reacted with the surrounding rock, especially carbonates, to precipitate metallic sulfides in fractures and voids. The most important lode production in Utah has come from mining districts within 50 miles of Salt Lake City. Uses include: photography, electrical and electronic products, silverware, and jewelry.

Potash – Potassium carbonate especially from wood ashes.

Uranium – A radioactive, silvery-white, metallic element. Uranium is produced first for its radium content, then for the vanadium associated with it. Thousands of occurrences have been found in southeastern Utah in the sandstones of the Colorado Plateau. Some occurrences have also been found with lode deposits related to volcanic activity and granitic intrusions. Uses include: munitions and power plants.

Vanadium – A gray or white, malleable, ductile, metallic element. Vanadium occurs with uranium in the Colorado Plateau (see Uranium). Uses include: hardens steel utilized in construction, machinery, and transportation.

Zinc – A bluish-white, lustrous metal. Zinc occurs with lode ores that are usually mined primarily for their silver and lead content (see Silver). Uses include: chemical, agricultural, rubber, and paint industries.